Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 29

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 32

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::clean() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 33

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 463

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 464

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 465

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 466

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 467

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 468

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 35

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 38

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 39

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 47

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 50

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 53

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 54

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 57

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 58

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getApplication() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/index.php on line 34

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Redefining already defined constructor for class JObject in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/base/object.php on line 57

Strict Standards: Non-static method JApplication::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JApplicationHelper::getClientInfo() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 132

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getRouter() should be compatible with & JApplication::getRouter($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /home/www2voce/public_html/includes/application.php on line 377

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getPathWay() should be compatible with & JApplication::getPathway($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /home/www2voce/public_html/includes/application.php on line 377

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getMenu() should be compatible with & JApplication::getMenu($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /home/www2voce/public_html/includes/application.php on line 377

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSession::set() should be compatible with JObject::set($property, $value = NULL) in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 737

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSessionStorageNone::register() should be compatible with JSessionStorage::register($options = Array) in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/storage/none.php on line 38

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cookie - headers already sent by (output started at /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 423

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cache limiter - headers already sent (output started at /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 423

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 426

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/html/parameter.php on line 21

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JRegistryFormatINI::objectToString() should be compatible with JRegistryFormat::objectToString(&$object) in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/format/ini.php on line 281

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::importPlugin() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/index.php on line 44

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 92

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JDispatcher::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/plugins/system/jxtended.php on line 51

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Redefining already defined constructor for class JPlugin in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/plugin.php on line 75

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JEvent::update() should be compatible with JObserver::update() in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/event/event.php on line 29

Strict Standards: Non-static method JDispatcher::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 140

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getApplication() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/plugins/system/nonumberelements.php on line 18

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getCmd() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/plugins/system/nonumberelements.php on line 27

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getVar() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 255

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanVar() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 151

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Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

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Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/document.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

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Strict Standards: Declaration of JDocumentHTML::setBuffer() should be compatible with JDocument::setBuffer($content) in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/html.php on line 394

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getCmd() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/index.php on line 70

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getVar() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 255

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanVar() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 134

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 577

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

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Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

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Strict Standards: Declaration of ContentController::display() should be compatible with JController::display($cachable = false) in /home/www2voce/public_html/components/com_content/controller.php on line 28

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Strict Standards: Non-static method JSite::getMenu() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/components/com_content/router.php on line 19

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Strict Standards: Non-static method JMenu::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 720

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Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

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 2 surge


Los inicios de lo que después sería el ISIS


LOS ANTECEDENTES QUE DIERON LUGAR al ISIS surgen en el contexto de la ocupaci√≥n de Irak. Tras la toma del pa√≠s por las tropas brit√°nicas y estadounidenses (y espa√Īolas hasta 2004), se formaron diversos grupos armados para luchar contra los invasores.

 

ENTRE ELLAS APARECE la autodenominada organizaci√≥n de la base yihadista en Mesopotamia (procedente de Jamaa al Tawhid wal-Jihad, nacida en 1999), conocida en la prensa como Al Qaeda en Irak. Posteriormente se unir√≠a a otros grupos bajo el nombre primero de Consejo de Muyaidines y despu√©s, en 2006, Estado Isl√°mico de Irak.

El contexto en Irak

Miles de iraqu√≠es fueron detenidos en c√°rceles secretas estadounidenses, donde recibieron torturas diarias. Algunos arrestados desaparec√≠an para siempre. Otros reaparec√≠an a√Īos despu√©s devastados por las torturas, y con una sobrevenida, inquebrantable y extremista fe religiosa.

3 surgeTras la ocupación EE.UU. desarticuló inmediatamente las Fuerzas Armadas iraquíes, criminalizó el partido Baaz e integró a milicias sectarias en las nuevas fuerzas de seguridad iraquíes para luchar contra la resistencia. Fomentó las divisiones y entrenó a integrantes de milicias policiales que sembraron el terror.
Fue lo que se llamó los escuadrones de la muerte, comandos que arrestaron a miles de jóvenes suníes, muchos de los cuales aparecían semanas después muertos en las calles de ciudades como Bagdad, con orificios de bala en la cabeza, pies o pulmones, con huesos rotos, cráneos aplastados, piel quemada o arrancada, signos de descargas eléctricas u ojos fuera de sus órbitas.

Cientos de miles de familias huyeron del país. En tan solo unos meses más de cinco millones de iraquíes se convirtieron en refugiados. Dos millones y medio de ellos se instalaron en Siria.

En poco tiempo Irak, que había sido un país donde muchos chiíes y suníes convivían juntos, donde un elevado porcentaje de los matrimonios eran mixtos, donde no había grandes tensiones sectarias, se convirtió en un infierno. Muchos antiguos integrantes de las Fuerzas Armadas desmanteladas compartieron celda con miembros de grupos religiosos que iban radicalizándose a medida que aumentaba la violencia y la represión.

El grupo de la c√°rcel de Camp Bucca

5 surgeAbu Bakr al-Baghdadi, que se convertiría en 2010 en el líder del Estado Islámico de Irak, fue arrestado por los estadounidenses en 2004 en la ciudad de Faluya, duramente golpeada por las fuerzas de ocupación, que bombardearon viviendas, mercados, escuelas, hospitales y emplearon fósforo blanco, un armamento letal que abrasa la piel de sus víctimas. El dolor provocado en aquella ciudad es recordado hasta día de hoy por sus habitantes.

Al Bagdadi fue enviado a la cárcel de Camp Bucca, donde las torturas estaban a la orden del día. Algunos se empaparon allí de las doctrinas más extremistas y desvirtuadas del Islam, como el wahabismo. De aquella prisión saldrían muchos hombres listos para integrar las filas del Estado Islámico (ISIS o Daesh).

Las revueltas en Irak

En 2010, en un Irak totalmente roto, irrumpi√≥ un movimiento pac√≠fico de protesta contra el gobierno central, que tom√≥ fuerza tras el estallido de las revueltas en T√ļnez o Egipto en 2011.

4 surgeEntrevisté por aquél entonces a uno de los organizadores de aquellas manifestaciones iraquíes, Udai Al Zaidi, hermano del famoso periodista que arrojó un zapato a George Bush y fue encarcelado por ello. Al Zaidi, chií, se manifestaba en Irak con miles de suníes y chiíes más, contra un gobierno al que tachaban de corrupto y sectario.

El gobierno de Al Maliki, aferrado al poder, reprimió aquellas multitudinarias protestas empleando balas contra los manifestantes, y apoyado por el Ejército estadounidense. Murieron cientos de personas y miles fueron encarceladas.

Manifestantes iraquíes en 2011 tratando de derribar un muro de la Zona Verde controlada por EEUU. En la misma época en Siria estallaban las revueltas.

El ‚ÄúEstado Isl√°mico‚ÄĚ en Siria

La represión gubernamental iraquí contra todo tipo de queja o protesta aumentó y llevó al extremismo a algunos sectores de la oposición.
Lo mismo ocurrió en Siria, donde las revueltas habían estallado en marzo de 2011.

El ‚ÄúEstado Isl√°mico‚ÄĚ de Irak envi√≥ una delegaci√≥n a Siria en agosto de 2011, cuando la guerra civil siria ya estaba en marcha, tras el aplastamiento de las revueltas por Bashar al Assad.

El l√≠der del ‚ÄúEstado Isl√°mico‚ÄĚ de Irak, el cl√©rigo Al Bagdadi, formateado tras su paso por la c√°rcel de Camp Bucca y la guerra, anunci√≥ en 2013 la creaci√≥n del ‚ÄúEstado Isl√°mico‚ÄĚ de Irak y Levante (Siria).

El auge del ISIS

En 2014 el ‚ÄúEstado Isl√°mico‚ÄĚ se hizo fuerte en Siria e Irak. Miles de hombres del ISIS, armados y protegidos con humvees y tanques, tomaron varias ciudades iraqu√≠es sin apenas resistencia.

6 surgeContacté entonces con algunos antiguos efectivos de las fuerzas armadas iraquíes desmanteladas por EE.UU. y de varios grupos de la resistencia iraquí. En un momento en el que ellos mismos habían ganado posiciones en territorio iraquí, se hacían la siguiente pregunta:
¬ŅInterrumpimos nuestra lucha contra nuestro enemigo, el gobierno de Al Maliki (apoyado por EE.UU.), para luchar contra el Estado Isl√°mico, superior en n√ļmero y fuerza a nosotros, o nos unimos al Daesh, a pesar de nuestras diferencias, para evitar ser derrotados? La respuesta elegida por muchos fue la segunda. Prefirieron ser c√≥mplices que enemigos.

Qui√©n les iba a decir a algunos oficiales de las fuerzas del laico Baaz iraqu√≠ en 2003 que a√Īos despu√©s combatir√≠an mano a mano con yihadistas extremos que proclamaban un Califato y dictaban las normas m√°s violentas y medievales en nombre de un distorsionado e instrumentalizado Islam. Abu Baker Al Bagdadi se convirti√≥ en l√≠der del Daesh (ISIS) en 2010. Iraqu√≠ arrestado en Faluya e internado en Camp Buca.

La toma de m√°s territorio

Grupos sun√≠es de diversa procedencia, solo unidos por un enemigo com√ļn, terminaron integrando las filas del Daesh. Tomaron varias ciudades iraqu√≠es y llegaron muy cerca de Bagdad. Apenas encontraron resistencia por parte del ej√©rcito iraqu√≠, marcado por la corrupci√≥n: ‚ÄúLos militares se fueron corriendo, no hab√≠a aviones, no hab√≠a nada que los parara. Para ser sincero, los √ļnicos que hicieron algo para detener (al Daesh) fueron los militares iran√≠es y las milicias chi√≠es‚ÄĚ, confesaba recientemente el exministro de Defensa iraqu√≠ Ali Allawi en un documental de Al Jazeera.

Desvincular Irak como contexto y desarrollo del Daesh ser√≠a hacer un an√°lisis cojo de su evoluci√≥n. En 2014, tras la toma de un amplio territorio en Irak, el Daesh proclam√≥ el Califato del Estado Isl√°mico de Irak y Siria, controlando un espacio similar al de Jordania. A sus filas se unieron chechenos, musulmanes procedentes de los Balcanes, del norte de √Āfrica y de Asia.

En agosto de 2014 llegó la respuesta internacional. Obama prometió acabar con el Daesh, y una alianza militar integrada por EE.UU., Arabia Saudí, Emiratos o Jordania empezó a bombardear focos supuestamente controlados por el grupo terrorista.

La vista gorda y la financiación

8 surgeEl Daesh ha sido visto por algunos actores regionales -Israel, Turquía, Arabia Saudí, etc.- como un arma potencial contra Irán. Ha mantenido débil al régimen chií de Irak y ha tenido ocupados a grupos enemigos de Israel, como Hezbolá, que lucha en Siria contra diversos grupos de la oposición, entre ellos el Daesh.
Turquía ha hecho la vista gorda ante el Daesh. El primer ministro Erdogan ha querido ver en movimientos islamistas radicales una forma de detener tanto la influencia chií en la zona como a los kurdos. Ha permitido el paso de yihadistas por su frontera, ha bombardeado a las YPG kurdas -unidades de protección popular- cuando se suponía que esos ataques tenían que dirigirse al Daesh, y ha permitido el flujo de camiones que cruzan la frontera cargados de petróleo procedente de los campos sirios controlados por el ISIS.

De ese modo cree evitar la posibilidad de una soberanía de los kurdos -que están luchando contra el Daesh- junto a su territorio.
La compra de petróleo en el mercado negro turco ha sido uno de los modos más eficaces de financiación para el Daesh, junto con el cobro de grandes sumas de dinero por el rescate de algunos secuestrados.

También recibe apoyo económico de individuos saudíes ante los que el régimen de Riad hace la vista gorda. Esas personas entregan dinero al Daesh y hacen lobby por él, presionando para que otros lo apoyen.

La guerra contra el terror

7 surgeLos aliados de EE.UU. en Siria en la coalición que bombardea el país han sido entre otros la monarquía absolutista de Arabia Saudí, que sigue consintiendo el apoyo al Daesh desde su país.

Washington y los saudíes también operan juntos, con Emiratos, en la coalición que bombardea Yemen, donde están creando más caldo de cultivo para el terrorismo con ataques como el que el pasado septiembre mató a 131 personas e hirió a cientos más.

Las matanzas como la de París son habituales en Oriente Próximo y Medio, ya sea por ejércitos o por grupos terroristas. La llamada guerra contra el terror, la estrategia de las bombas y las intervenciones, se ha mostrado ineficaz: lejos de menguar, el terrorismo y la violencia crecen.

Fran√ßois Hollande dec√≠a que la masacre de Par√≠s es un acto de guerra. En realidad Occidente participa en una contienda desde que se involucr√≥ en Afganist√°n armando a los muyaidines que devinieron en los talibanes. Luego llegar√≠an Irak, Libia, Siria, Yemen‚Ķ Pero al ser guerras que se libran lejos de nuestras fronteras, solo nos acordamos de ellas cuando alg√ļn macabro eco llega a nuestros territorios.

El paso al frente de Francia

9 surgeDijo Hollande que la masacre de París es un acto de guerra, pero lo cierto es que Francia lleva participando en guerras desde hace tiempo.
En los √ļltimos a√Īos nuestro pa√≠s vecino ha querido situarse en primera fila de la geopol√≠tica, en busca de una mayor influencia internacional. Para ello abander√≥ la defensa de la intervenci√≥n militar en Libia, de la mano del fil√≥sofo Bernard-Henri Levy, quien ped√≠a, en una huida hacia adelante, m√°s tropas en el terreno sirio y m√°s guerra.

Con la excusa de liberar una ciudad de las garras del ej√©rcito de Gadafi, una coalici√≥n militar liderada por Francia y Reino Unido -con compa√Īeros de dudosa reputaci√≥n- arm√≥ en 2011 a grupos yihadistas y a individuos que antes hab√≠an participado en la guerra contra EE.UU. en Afganist√°n.
Aquella operación prosiguió durante meses y no paró hasta que Francia y EE.UU. asesinaron extrajudicialmente a Gadafi. Fue llamativo que ambos países se disputaran, cual botín, la autoría de un asesinato que violaba la ley internacional.

‚ÄúLlegamos, vimos, muri√≥‚ÄĚ

Libia qued√≥ fragmentada y dividida en milicias armadas por Occidente, algunas de ellas extremistas. No import√≥, Hillary Clinton no pudo evitar aquello de ‚Äúllegamos, vimos y muri√≥‚ÄĚ, comentando el asesinato de Gadafi. El salvaje oeste volv√≠a a ser reivindicado. ¬ŅPara qu√© hay c√°rceles y tribunales cuando se puede ejecutar a alguien sin m√°s?

Libia se convirtió en arsenal de yihadistas armados que participarían en el horror actual que vive tanto ese país como Siria.
Francia también impulsó una intervención militar en Mali en 2013, enviando tropas galas al terreno.

Los papeles en Siria

Desde 2011 varios servicios secretos occidentales, así como unidades especiales de EE.UU., estuvieron presentes en Siria, estudiando a qué grupos de la oposición apoyar y armar.

Ya en 2012 escrib√≠ en el libro ‚ÄúYo muero hoy. Las revueltas en el mundo √°rabe‚ÄĚ c√≥mo Francia o Reino Unido, as√≠ como Arabia Saud√≠, Emiratos o Qatar, estaban ofreciendo apoyo log√≠stico, militar o de inteligencia a diversos grupos ‚Äúrebeldes‚ÄĚ, algunos de ellos yihadistas.
La apuesta de Obama fue la estrategia del desgaste: dejar que los bandos implicados se debilitaran entre ellos, apoyando a determinados grupos de la oposición pero sin facilitar armamento pesado y evitando un desenlace.

En 2014 comenz√≥ una campa√Īa de bombardeos a√©reos por EE.UU. y aliados del Golfo y en septiembre de este a√Īo se uni√≥ Francia. No es la primera vez por tanto que aviones franceses atacaban posiciones del Daesh.
Irán y Rusia estuvieron presentes respaldando al régimen de Bashar al Assad, que no dudó en golpear duro en sus bombardeos sobre zonas urbanas en un intento por acabar con la oposición, a costa de muerte y destrucción, lo que contribuyó al aumento del extremismo.

El Daesh en Siria

Con la llegada a Siria de una delegaci√≥n del ‚ÄúEstado Isl√°mico‚ÄĚ de Irak en agosto de 2011 se puso en marcha el ‚ÄúEstado Isl√°mico‚ÄĚ de Irak y Siria, que se asent√≥ en varias √°reas sun√≠es del pa√≠s, algunas de ellas cercanas a la frontera de Turqu√≠a, donde han operado los servicios secretos turcos, que han hecho la vista gorda ante las idas y venidas de los yihadistas. Como apuntaba en la primera parte de este art√≠culo, varios actores regionales se han beneficiado de la existencia del ISIS.

En 2013, tras la toma de algunas ciudades importantes de Irak, el ISIS se hizo fuerte y popular entre algunos sectores de j√≥venes musulmanes marcados por la guerra o por la desafecci√≥n. A ello ha contribuido su sofisticada campa√Īa propagand√≠stica a trav√©s de Internet.

Sykes-Picot

11 surgeEl ISIS ha proclamado en un vídeo que Sykes-Picot se ha acabado, y muchos en la región opinan que estamos ante un segundo Sykes-Picot.
El acuerdo de Sykes-Picot, llamado así por el apellido de sus dos valedores, fue suscrito de forma secreta en 1916, en la I Guerra Mundial, entre Francia y Reino Unido. A través de él ambas potencias se repartían el control de Oriente Medio en caso de una victoria militar: Francia ejercería su influencia sobre los actuales Siria y Líbano, y Reino Unido sobre Transjordania (la actual Jordania y Cisjordania), Palestina e Irak.

Así lo acordaron y así se hizo, a pesar de que sus promesas a la población local habían sido otras. La independencia ansiada por los árabes cayó en saco roto. Sykes-Picot convirtió antiguas provincias del Imperio otomano en países, dibujó fronteras a su antojo y repartió un suculento pastel entre París y Londres.

El papel de Francia en la zona

Desde 1920 y hasta la década de los 40 Francia ejerció su control sobre la Gran Siria, que comprendía lo que hoy conocemos como Líbano y Siria. En Líbano se impuso un sistema de reparto de poder en función de la confesión religiosa fomentado por París, interesado en beneficiar a los cristianos.
Ese sistema estableció la presencia en el Parlamento de seis cristianos por cada cinco musulmanes, a pesar de que estos eran mayoría en el país. Aquello estableció una división de facto entre las diferentes religiones.

En Siria Francia tambi√©n ejerci√≥ su mandato imponiendo sus intereses, violando la independencia que el rey Faisal I hab√≠a declarado en 1920 y declarando a Siria como su ‚Äúcolonia‚ÄĚ.

El oficial franc√©s Goraud comand√≥ sus tropas hasta Damasco, ocup√≥ la ciudad y aplast√≥ una revuelta popular contra el mandato de Par√≠s, en la batalla de Maysalum. Tras ello, Goraud se dirigi√≥ a la tumba de Saladino, la pate√≥ y, seg√ļn se le atribuye hasta hoy, dijo: ‚ÄúDespierta, Saladino. Hemos regresado. Mi presencia aqu√≠ consagra la victoria de la Cruz sobre la Media Luna‚ÄĚ.

A pesar de la represi√≥n francesa, en los siguientes a√Īos se sucedieron varias revueltas en Siria y L√≠bano en contra de la dominaci√≥n extranjera. Es importante tener en cuenta c√≥mo esta lleva siendo percibida desde hace d√©cadas.

Las injerencias

En 1948, en territorio vecino a Siria, nacería el Estado de Israel, auspiciado por la ONU, las potencias occidentales y la URSS y con la oposición de los países árabes de la zona, que veían peligrar sus propios territorios.

Cuatro a√Īos antes, cuando dos rabinos hab√≠an ido a la Casa Blanca pidiendo un Estado jud√≠o en Palestina al presidente Roosevelt, este dijo: ‚ÄúPensando en ello, dos hombres, dos hombres sagrados, vienen aqu√≠ a pedirme que permita que millones de personas sean asesinadas en una yihad‚ÄĚ.

También entonces Hannah Arendt explicó su oposición al sionismo alegando que las políticas judías en Palestina dependerían de la protección de las grandes potencias. Y así ha sido. Occidente ha seguido desde entonces tomando partido por la ocupación israelí, que sigue en Cisjordania, Jerusalén Este, Gaza y los Altos del Golán de Siria.

La permisividad de Occidente con semejantes políticas, en comparación con sus castigos a los árabes, tiene sin duda consecuencias que habría que valorar.
La era colonial en Oriente Pr√≥ximo y las injerencias -como el golpe de Estado de la CIA y Reino Unido contra el gobierno democr√°tico iran√≠ de Mossadeq- desembocaron en la creaci√≥n de organizaciones √°rabes de resistencia armada o, en el caso iran√≠, en la revoluci√≥n isl√°mica del 79. En los a√Īos setenta los movimientos √°rabes seculares dominaban la escena, pero empezaron a crecer algunos grupos religiosos isl√°micos, impulsados y apoyados por reg√≠menes conservadores que quer√≠an menguar la influencia de ese nacionalismo √°rabe laico predominante hasta entonces.

El punto de inflexión

Y llegamos de nuevo al punto de inflexión: la guerra de Afganistán y los integristas islámicos que recibieron armas y financiación de EE.UU. o Arabia Saudí para combatir a la URSS en suelo afgano.

Al mismo tiempo Israel invadía Líbano, lo que provocó la creación de Hezbolá, que en 1983 perpetró un enorme atentado suicida contra el cuartel de los marines estadounidenses en Beirut y contra un puesto de mando francés.
A la vez en Palestina estallaba la primera Intifada y, al calor de la represión israelí, surgió la organización de resistencia armada palestina Hamás. También nacían la Yihad Islámica y grupos extremistas egipcios.

Pocos a√Īos despu√©s en Argelia, excolonia francesa, se produc√≠a un golpe de Estado para impedir que el Frente Isl√°mico de Salvaci√≥n, que hab√≠a ganado las elecciones en primera vuelta, pudiera gobernar. De ese modo naci√≥ el GIA, Grupo Isl√°mico Armado, que protagoniz√≥ uno de los primeros atentados yihadistas registrados en Francia.

Todo aquello supuso la consolidación del islamismo y el extremismo en los grupos armados que luchaban o por la independencia, o contra la ocupación, o simplemente ya por la yihad. El remate final lo pusieron la invasión de Afganistán en 2011, la ocupación de Irak en 2003 y el infierno que provocaron.
En 2006 nuevamente Occidente no quiso reconocer al ganador de unas elecciones democráticas cuando Hamás arrasó en los territorios palestinos.

Posteriormente en 2013 en Egipto un golpe de Estado respaldado por sectores occidentales derrocó al gobierno de los Hermanos Musulmanes elegido en las urnas e instauró una fuerte represión, lo que ha provocado que algunos jóvenes egipcios, radicalizados, hayan viajado a Siria para unirse a la guerra. Lo mismo ha ocurrido en Siria, donde la guerra y la represión solo han engendrado fanatismo y dolor.

Con cada intervención...

El ex general estadounidense Wesley Clark dijo hace unos meses que ‚ÄúEE.UU. us√≥ el Islam radical para luchar contra los sovi√©ticos en Afganist√°n. Rogamos a los saud√≠es que pusieran dinero; y lo hicieron‚ÄĚ.

Tambi√©n este a√Īo un antiguo enviado especial de la ONU, Lakdar Brahimi, que trabaj√≥ en Irak y Afganist√°n, atribuy√≥ la emergencia del ISIS a la invasi√≥n de Irak: ‚ÄúNo hab√≠a justificaci√≥n para la guerra de Irak y todos pagamos las consecuencias‚ÄĚ.

Las guerras en las que Occidente lleva a√Īos involucrado no solo no han parado el terrorismo, sino que este ha aumentado. Con cada bomba sobre determinadas zonas de Siria, con cada discurso desafiante, con cada ret√≥rica racista, el ISIS ganar√° nuevos adeptos no solo en Oriente Pr√≥ximo, sino tambi√©n en barrios deprimidos de Europa como en el que viv√≠a uno de los terroristas de Par√≠s.

Este escrito es un simple repaso, poco completo porque este espacio lo impide, pero suficiente para mostrar que, a pesar de lo que algunos insin√ļan en programas y tertulias, el extremismo violento que se ejerce en nombre del Islam no procede de ning√ļn ADN connatural a una religi√≥n o a una etnia; que no surge por ciencia infusa de la nada, que todo tiene un contexto pol√≠tico e hist√≥rico, que para buscar soluciones a los problemas hay que analizar sus causas.

eldiario.es
Rebelión



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